Shoulder Dystocia Medical Legal Illustrations

Clients: Dr. Leila Lax

Medium: Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator

Audience: Judge and jury of the trial

Date: November 2018

Project Details: This project was completed for a Medical Legal Visualization class in the Biomedical Communications program. The panels illustrate the timeline of events that occurred before delivery of a baby who suffered from shoulder dystocia and eventually cerebral palsy. 

This was a group project. The co-designers included Colleen Tang Poy, Jenny Chin and Alex YoungTasks were split evenly between the group members through the different stages of the project. Group members communicated and updated each other frequently. My tasks included drawing all the doctor's hands and the doctor performing the McRoberts maneuver. I was also involved with the Photoshop rendering of the assets, including the mother's body, the doctor's hands and the medical equipment. 

Abramowicz. Jacques S., & Ahn, J. T. (2018). Fetal macrosomia. Retrieved October 10, 2018, from


Ayres-de-Campos, D. (2017). Obstetric Emergencies: A Practical Guide. Springer International Publishing. (pp. 32-35, Figure 3.7)


Chin, A. & van Zundert, A. (2016) Chapter 23: Spinal Anesthesia. In A. Hadzic's (Ed.), Hadzic's Textbook of Regional Anesthesia and Acute Pain Management (2nd Edition). McGraw-Hill Education. Retrieved from:

Cunningham, G. F., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Spong, C. Y., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., … Sheffield, J. S. (2007). Williams Obstetrics (24th Edition). McGraw-Hill Education.
Text and images from the following pages:
Orientation (pp. 33-34), umbilical cord (97-100, 116-120), fundal height (176), normal labour (412-416), fetal position, process, caput (434-444), station (449), shoulder dystocia, McRoberts (541-543, Figures 27-7, 27-8, 27-9), episiotomy (550-554), mityvac (583-584)


Dall’Asta, A., Ghi, T., Pedrazzi, G., & Frusca, T. (2016). Does vacuum delivery carry a higher risk of shoulder dystocia? Review and meta-analysis of the literature. European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology.


Gabbe, S. G., Niebyl, J. R., Simpson, J. L., Landon, M. B., Galan, H. L., Jauniaux, E. R. M., & Driscoll, D. A. (2012). Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling.


Gherman, R. B., Tramont, J., Muffley, P., & Goodwin, T. M. (2000). Analysis of McRoberts’ maneuver by x-ray pelvimetry. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 95(1), 43–47.


Hook, C. D., & Damos, J. R. (2008). Vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. American Family Physician.


Herzberg, S., Kabiri, D., Mordechai, T., Haj Yahya, R., Chill, H., Levitt, L., … Ezra, Y. (2017). Fetal macrosomia as a risk factor for shoulder dystocia during vacuum extraction. Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine.


Johnson, R., & Taylor, W. (2016). Skills for Midwifery Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Text and images from the following pages:
Principles of abdominal examination: during pregnancy and labour (pp. 1-10)


Kalis, V., Laine, K., De Leeuw, J. W., Ismail, K. M., & Tincello, D. G. (2012). Classification of episiotomy: Towards a standardisation of terminology. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 119(5), 522–526.


Oxorn, H., & Foote, W. R. (1986). Oxorn-Foote Human Labor & Birth. Appleton-Century-Crofts (5th ed., pp. 69, Figure 2.b).


Papageorghiou, A. T., Ohuma, E. O., Gravett, M. G., Hirst, J., da Silveira, M. F., Lambert, A., … International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st). (2016). International standards for symphysis-fundal height based on serial measurements from the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project: prospective cohort study in eight countries. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 355, i5662.


Scheuer, L., & Black, S. (2000). The Upper Limb. Developmental Juvenile Osteology (p. 280, Figure 9.6). Academic Press.


Sokol, R., & Blackwell, S. (2002). ACOG practice bulletin No. 40: Shoulder Dystocia. Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Rachael Whitehead 2020 ©